german army ranks modern

Army persons in uniform for example wear on shoulder straps to the grey pullover, black mounting straps with bright-grey (for generals gold-yellow) emblems (see image a.). In all three branches of the German armed forces there are three career paths: officers (Offiziere), NCOs (Unteroffiziere, non-commissioned officers) and enlisted soldiers (Mannschaften). Additional elements are not components of the rank insignia, because the rank or grade level is clearly defined by the rank isignia itself. Cuff titles or sleeve insignias: 3. The double wing is even part of the otherwise empty mounting loop to the lowest private OR1-rank (de: Flieger; see image a. ), Versions for officers of the medical service including officer candidates, Historical ranks in the Prussian Army of Frederick the Great, Excluding the officer candidates and generals, the ranks have slightly different names to differentiate specialties, e.g. In this way a military mass is constituted which, though unsuited to take part in a war of movement and seek a Additional elements are not components of the rank insignia, because the rank or grad level is already clearly defined or specified by any above mentioned particular rank insignia. The rank Soldat is replaced by ranks specific to their Truppengattung (branch of service): NCOs (Unteroffiziere) play an important role in the Heer as they are entrusted the command of most sub-company units. These are held at the Officer's School in Dresden for three months, followed by a 10-week period for training English and three months of active service, the so-called Truppenkommando as regular soldier in a military unit. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, "An- und einnähbare Schulterklappen für Heer und Luftwaffe (paspeliert oder unterlegt)", http://daten.bwb.org/AG-Bund/TL/Daten/84550087.pdf, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Rank_insignias_of_the_German_Bundeswehr?oldid=4047840. The promotion to Oberfeldwebel is regularly given after one year as Feldwebel. The 'ZdV-64/10 - Abkürzungen in der Bundeswehr' gives the abbreviations and a list of the abbreviations. The specialty badge is different for medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and pharmacy. The states of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government. 20 years of service overall). The 'ZdV-37/10 – Anzugsordnung für Soldaten der Bundeswehr' gives the dress order and design veriations. A suitable commander will announce the promotion by reading the order to that effect, while the soldiers to be promoted will stand forward at attention facing the unit. – or gold-colored by general grads (image c.)). Admiralstabsarzt (Konteradmiral / ) Seamen (recruit OR-1) wear assignment badges on shoulder strap or upper-sleeve which are apart from that empty. This is largely due to the German military doctrine of Auftragstaktik: German orders usually do not include specific instructions, but rather a task, the available time and the available means. However, there are additional statuses not defined by these rank markings, such as being a licensed medical officer or a designated officer of NCO rank. Sleeve insignias on shirts more simple, but pertaining form and dimensions identically to those on jackets. This gives leaders of smaller units a great deal of freedom and responsibility. Like in the active duty, epaulettes demonstrate rank, supplemented by a colored cord which shows the branch the soldier is serving. Starting as Schütze (Rifleman) or trooper a promotion to Gefreiter rank is expected after primary recruit training (usually after three or six months depending on the service unit). Especially Feldwebels and above carry similar responsibilities officers have. When this six-year-training is concluded, the officers are promoted to Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) and transferred to their army-units for regular service. De facto are mounting loops in 5- and 3 color flecktarn in contradiction to the Presidential Order on Rank Designation and Uniform of Soldiers, and might be only procured individually. Sep 20, 2016 - Explore Randy Mckeehan's board "german officer uniforms" on Pinterest. In practice the replacement of the obsolete grey-colored mounting loops by the new fashioned black-colour version is almost completed. Hello, we provide concise yet detailed articles on "German Choices: Modern German Military Uniforms" topic. From this point of few it might be sufficient to demonstrate exemplarily the different versions of design, instead to show a complete list. The Re­ich­swehr's vi­sual ac­knowl­edge­ment of the new Na­tional So­cial­ist re­al­ity came on 17 Feb­ru­ary 1934, when the De­fense Min­istry or­dered the Nazi Party ea­gle-and-swastika, now Ger­many's Na­tional Em­blem, to be worn on uni­form blouses and head­gear ef­fec­tive 1 May. The Bundeswehr (German: [ˈbʊndəsˌveːɐ̯] (), meaning literally Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. Further it enables the attribution of the soldier to the group of uniform carrier group Heer (German Army), Luftwaffe (German Air Force), or Marine (German Navy). In opposition to the ZDv 37/10, in representative military units (e.g. Female soldiers hold the same rank as their male counterparts. Guard Battalion of MOD-Germany and Staff Military Band) for enlisted personnel and non commissioned officers the background of the basic uniform gorget patches shows the specific corps colour of the appropriate armed service, special troop, corps or assignment. The Air Force double-wing is mounted to other parts of the flying suit, and is intentional omitted on mounting straps. ), in order to distinguish between the Air Force – and Army personnel in tarnfleck uniform. Admiraloberstabsarzt (Vizeadmiral / Vice Admiral) Civil master craftsman of army-relevant jobs may directly start as Feldwebel. Young man, usually less than a year out of military academy, carried the unit flag. Ranks insignias are part of the Bundeswehr uniform. About 1.5 percent of each cohort are chosen to take part in the Generalstabslehrgang (general staff course) at the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr (military academy) at Hamburg. Black-red-gold: Reservist außerhalb Dienstverhältnis (Reservist without employment) While doing so, their uniform shows their non-active status by a supplemental twisted black-red-gold cord, worn on the lower end of the rank-epaulettes (Navy: Golden letter R on epaulettes or jacket sleeve). However, this particular versions aren´t neither mentioned and depicted in the ZDv 37/10, nor officially procured. The Generalstabslehrgang is a necessary requirement for the promotion to a General's rank. a physician holding a rank equivalent to, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Anordnung des Bundespräsidenten über die Dienstgradbezeichnungen und die Uniform der Soldaten, Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces, "Traditioneller Schulterschlag: Hauptmann d. R. Tobias Halter wird zum Major der Reserve befördert", http://www.deutschesheer.de/portal/a/heer/!ut/p/z1/hVBhS8MwEP01_ZqLjU07v7WCY1KGuOLWfJGsuaWVmpQsa8Vfb8pQECzewYO79-4dPBBwAGHk2GnpO2tkH-Za8NciK6syXsVxlawLuuF5madVxu6LBF5g_59EBJouVE5hpxDq4JEuejzfwg4ECIWksQb9jB6N7wJqJ711ZLDO9zNzcS4wpFNQc0wT3vCGZeyGrRhdai4DxkHBg_qUJjH97vnpmxzlx4-_bOZgoG6lUT0-2Sa_Lh5B6N4er4nl5sgyDcLhCR06cnFh3Xo_nO8iGtFpmoi2VvdIFEb0r4vWnj0cfglheH_Itttk_Cxx_wWjlHyL/dz/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/#Z7_B8LTL2922T5GB0I6ALA7T83CR4, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Ranks_of_the_German_Bundeswehr?oldid=4540678, Multiple layers of responsibility, Continued to hold his position as "chef" (Inhaber/Proprietor), Major general, in broad use in Prussia after 1820. Rank insignias tolerated versions - field uniform: Double wing to rank insignias Luftwaffe - field uniform: Various Asignment Series (AS) of German Marine assignment badges: Basic structure of shoulder straps and sleeve insignias, Non-commissioned officers (NCO/ de: Unteroffiziere), Commissioned officers (CO/ de: Offiziere). on dark grey cloth. Furthermore they attend required special training courses like a survival or driving school for the different vehicles of their branch. However, male naval persons in uniform wear cuff titles, known from the jacket. The following table shows comparative officer ranks of several Allied and Central powers during World War I.Not all combatant countries are shown in the table. Competent legal basis is the Presidential order on rank designation and uniform of soldiers[1] The names of ranks in the army and air force are identical; those of the navy and of medical officers are different. The ranks of the armed forces were divided after the restructuring as in most modern armed forces into 3 careers. A whole army, then, quite logically was commanded by a general (Generalhauptmann, general [normal English adjective] captain), with assistance of a lieutenant-general and a Generalwachtmeister. Any higher rank requires a certain amount of years in their previous rank and performance. MilMusikOA - Military Musical Officer Candidate (. In the air force the career starts at the air force academy in Fürstenfeldbruck (Fürsti) near Munich. In the place of stripes, with parts of metallic spinning fibers wire yarn, the oblique chevrons are made from golden-yellow or steel-blue spinning fibers without any metallic parts of wire yarn (see images b and c.). Career officers usually start out as enlisted personnel with the lowest rank in one of the three officer candidate battalions of the German Army located in Hammelburg, Idar-Oberstein and Munster. However, to licensed medical officers as well as to officer designated personnel of the NCO rank group, equipped with specific rang insignias which are differing to the normal one`s, additional elements are significant, in order to define the rank or grad unequivocal. Variations of the in the first instance depicted rank insignias will be explained in more detail. The "head of the snake" points forward, i.e. Colonel, frequently also held the position of Inhaber or Proprietor of a regiment. See more ideas about German uniforms, Military insignia, German army. This course lasts two years after the completion of which the participants put a "i.G." The most important distinction between NCOs and enlisted men is that the latter cannot give any order even to lower-ranking soldiers unless specific circumstances apply (e.g. Shoulder straps or - boards: 2. Stabsarzt, Stabsapotheker, Stabsveterinär, While a major by far outranks a lieutenant, a lieutenant general outranks a major general. Basically, the different types of rank insignias might be distinguished as follows: 1. Diverse additional elements complete all versions of rank insignias, illustrated above. Further laws on military duty also used these terms.Conventions (some later amended) were entered into between the North German Confederation and its member states, effectiv… To be promoted to Oberstabsgefreiter a soldier requires at least four years of enlisted service. The "head of the snake" points forward, i.e. As to naval persons in uniform there will be additionally depicted sleeve insignias on the uniform jacket. Double wing mounting loops are longer and wider than other one`s. after their rank, meaning im Generalstabsdienst (in general staff service). 16 years after promotion to Feldwebel a soldier may be eligible for promotion to Stabsfeldwebel. Basically, the different types of rank insignias might be distinguished as follows: The rank insignias of all grads will be explained initially on the example of shoulder straps to the basic uniform or everyday uniform in order provide a general overflew. The German Army of the Third Reich era inherited the uniforms and rank structure from the Reichsheer of the Weimar Republic, 1921–1935, many of whose traditions went back to the Imperial Army of the German Empire and earlier. When for the Oberstwachtmeister the name major became common, it was also adapted to the Generalwachtmeisters, which then became majors-general while still inferior to lieutenants-general. German Armoured Fighting Vehicle Two-piece padded Suit - Flecktarn camo £50.00 German Army Desert Camouflage trousers - Tropentarn £18.00 German Army Flecktarn Parka from £17.00 German Army Flecktarn Parka liner £17.00 German Army Flecktarn Parka with fur trimmed hood - no liner £35.00 In the NATO rank scale, it comes below the grade of OF-1 and is annotated as OF(D). Since the ancient time of Prussian Army, the non-commissioned officers or subofficers of German armies are distinguished into German military mulls bringing in feminine form for army ranks This article is more than 2 months old Under current system a female captain, for example, is called Frau Hauptmann – Mrs Captain For modern ranks refer to List of comparative military ranks. In order to be promoted to Major (major; a rank only career officers can achieve), the officers have to complete successfully a course called Stabsoffizierlehrgang (SOL) (field grade officer basic course). After an additional three months of service (usually consisting of special training required for their branch of service) a soldier is usually promoted to Obergefreiter rank unless they fail even most basic requirements. Assignment badges (de: Laufbahnabzeichen) of the German Marine are equivalent to the corps colors of Heer and Luftwaffe and have corresponding functions respectively. It takes a minimum of 10 years of officer's service to become a major. Mounting loops or - straps (in de: Aufziehschlaufen): These additional elements are necessary to discriminate military ranks and careers within a rank class or group. (der Reserve = of the reserve) after their rank, but only when not on active duty (during an exercise or DVag they are just soldiers, like any other active soldier - there is nothing to mark that they are "only" Reservists) and in correspondence, not in speaking their rank. In the meanwhile this sentence in the ZDV 37/10 was deleted. A regiment, on the other hand would be commanded by a colonel (Oberst, i. e. Obersthauptmann, literally supreme captains), with assistance of a lieutenant-colonel and an Oberstwachtmeister. ): to enlisted personnel: in the middle below of the rank insignia, to NCO with portepeed (sword knot): in the middle above of the rank insignia. Additional elements do specify the career of the particular soldier and the membership to a military branch, service branch, or armed service, etc. After promotion to Leutnant (second lieutenant) they continue with the Officer's Course 2 at the Army Officer's School and the Officer's Course 3 at their respective branch-schools. The Rank insignias of the German Bundeswehr, known collectively as armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany, are designed in order to indicate the particular ranks of the Bundeswehr. In most cases they characterize a rank or career group within the Bundeswehr. During wartime, the staff of the Army inspectorates formed field army commands, which controlled the corps and subordinate units. Ranks designated as OF(D): In some NATO countries, the term "officer designate"is used. [citation needed] For Air Force pilots´ flying suits there exists a version of mounting straps with bright-grey (generals golden-yellow) emblems on dark-blue basic textile (without double-wing). The rank structure of the German army is adjusted to the rank structure of NATO. If regular battledress is worn, it is customary that two fellow soldiers from the same rank group, but slightly senior, replace the shoulder strap sleeves from both sides with a pair indicating the new rank. The basic officers training consists of 11 months of basic training, military drill, theoretical education and a few weeks in a Luftwaffenausbildungsregiment (air force training regiment) as a deputy instructor with the rank of Obergefreiter OA. US Army Warrant Officers are counted as officers, not enlisted men. Flottillenarzt; Flottillenapotheker Special additional cord colors are: Generic soldiers, which do not carry rank insignias, may carry additional elements. Mounting straps or loops (de: Aufziehschlaufen) are in principle absolutely identical to the design of the shoulder straps, depicted above. Dec 18, 2018 - Explore William Hostman's board "Rank Insignia - modern" on Pinterest. Exempted from that are only the asymmetric badges to health service (assignment series 81), where the Hippocratic snack shows always ahead. Assignment badges are normally positioned as follows: Assignment badges on shoulder straps should be normally symmetric and are worn between head and rank insignia. Having completed this course, the minimum rank those officers achieve is usually Oberst (colonel). Reservists serving as enlisted men, NCOs or Officers add d.R. 2021 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. The Bundesbesoldungsordnung (Federal Salary Scale Regulation) regulates the salary scales of all Federal office holders and employees including soldiers. The specialty badge is different for medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine and pharmacy. in correspondence. No Place for Right-Wing Extremists in Ranks, German Army Says | … for the grades feldwebel, lieutenant or major, might be difficult. * above: description to person in uniform “ Heer Bundeswehr“ (Federal armed forces´ Army) and „Luftwaffe Bundeswehr“ (Federal armed forces´ Air Force) ; below – Description to person in uniform “Deutsche Marine” (German Navy). These require additional elements to signify such status. In all three branches of the German armed forces there are three career paths: officers (Offiziere), NCOs (Unteroffiziere, non-commissioned officers) and enlisted soldiers (Mannschaften). Only the steel-blue assignment badges of white shirts to enlisted personnel are waved. With the completion of the Offizierschule der Luftwaffe (OSLw) they are promoted to Fahnenjunker and either start with their studies at one of the two universities in Munich and Hamburg, or start with their basic flight training. [5], Also in deviation from the description above, on the service jacket and skiing blouse colour pipings or cops background colour on gorget patches are dropped.[5]. Army- and Air Force persons in uniform of the commissioned officers rank group may carry in line with ZDV 37/10 self-procured hand stitched rank insignias (File: d.) instead of the metallic version (File: e.). As illustrated above, all rank insignias come with a number of diverse additional elements. I am an old man. NCOs are divided into those with or without a sword knot lanyard (mit / ohn… In most cases they do characterize a rank – or career group within the Bundeswehr. the direction the soldier is facing. This version of shoulder straps will be worn to uniform shirt and overcoat. Mounting loops or - straps (in de: Aufziehschlaufen): Collar patches of general grades Heer/ Luftwaffe OF6 – OF7: Officers in general staff assignment (i.G. a) Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee (sub-officers without lanyard) Deviating from the description above, naval enlisted personnel of the Guard Battalion on MOD-Germany (de: Wachbataillon beim BMVg) doesn’t wear any sleeve insignia. Naval personnel in uniform of the rank groups enlisted personnel and non commissioned officers wear on shoulder straps (not on mounting straps or appliquéd cuff title in waved performance) and sleeves specific marks of distinction or badges, in order to characterize the appropriate assignment. Reservists have the same promotion periods and service times as active soldiers. However, this type of rank insignias is rather seldom in practice. However, the below depicted mounting loops in 5- and 3 color flecktarn with black-, grey- or yellow-colored emblems are tolerated and worn op to highest rank groups and grades. See also: Comparative officer ranks of World War II German Army Ranks and Insignia / Deutsche Armee Ränge und Insignien Alfred Jodl. ⇒ Article: Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr. Archaic, out of practice by 1860. The collar patches on uniform jackets show corps colors as well. Soldiers may opt to sign long-term contracts as enlisted soldiers, but most enlisted soldiers serving long terms in fact applied for NCO (non-commissioned officer) careers but failed their training requirements and opted to serve their term as enlisted soldiers rather than being released from service immediately. Modern equipment of the German Army, list of equipment currently in service with the German Army. After six months of officer candidate training course in these battalions, containing basic military drill, military law and history, the officer candidates proceed with the Officer's Course 1. Commanded the field camp. Oberstleutnant '(lt.-col.) is the standard final rank for career officers which can be awarded after 17 years of service. Unlike its predecessors, the modern German Army does … The ZDv 37/10 was supplemented by the following sentence:”Until official procurement of the new designed olive-green mounting loops with black-colored rank insignias (for enlisted personnel, non commissioned officers, and commissioned officers including colonel grads of Heer and Luftwaffe), the old fashioned mounting loop version with grey-colour rank insignias has to be worn out. The Heeras the German armyand part of the Wehrmachtinherited its uniforms and rank structurefrom the Reichsheerof the Weimar Republic(1921–1935). There is one more enlisted rank (Command Sergeant Major), and three more Warrant Officer ranks (Warrant Officers W3–W5). The basic peacetime organizational structure of the Imperial German Army were the Army inspectorate ( Armee-Inspektion ), the army corps ( Armeekorps ), the division and the regiment. Corps [or troop-function] colours (de: Waffenfarben) have been traditionally used in German armed forces since the 19th century. Oberst (colonel) is the highest field grade rank (promotion requires a minimum of 17 years of officer's service, i.e. The double wing, also part of other elements on aviator´s uniform, serves as unmistakable discrimination feature to the stone-grey/ olive-colored mounting strap to the uniform of the Heer. (Outside Germany, the former Wachtmeister on the company-size by the same transfer became known as the sergeant major. Further, the Federal Office of Equipment, IT, and in-service support of the Bundeswehr (Bundesamt für Ausrüstung, Informationstechnik und Nutzung der Bundeswehr) provides numerous details. Officer, Sergeant or NCO candidates in the reserve add ROA, RFA or RUA, while active officer, Sergeant or NCO candidates add OA, FA or UA. In the German WWII Army, all ranks below 2nd Lieutenant were enlisted men. Naval persons in uniform, of the enlisted personnel rank group, wear relatively seldom the dark blue jacket with the above indicated cuff titles, because enlisted mariner in the age below 30 years prefer to wear the white shirt or blue shirt instead of the uniform jacked. Corps colored loops might be used on mounting straps to the field uniform. Almost similar performed mounting straps do exist for different coloured uniform parts as well as to Army, Air Force and Navy persons in uniform. After 15 months, the officer candidates attend one of the two Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich and Hamburg to attain a Master's degree after four years of study. Officers are subdivided into Lieutenants (Leutnante), Captains (Hauptleute), Staff Officers (Stabsoffiziere) and Admirals (Admiräle) or Generals (Generäle). The ranks of the German Federal Armed Forces are arranged in accordance with joint service regulations 14/5 national service act into seven grade categories: - Generale (Generals) - Stabsoffiziere ... Tankograd 5077 Luchs The Luchs 8-Wheeled Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle in Modern German Army … Soldiers have the possibility to start with the rank of an Unteroffizier or even Stabsunteroffizier if they already have a civil apprenticeship which qualifies them for any army-equivalent position. Oberstabsarzt; Oberstabsapotheker, Oberstabsveterinär, Oberstabsarzt; Oberstabsapotheker, Oberstabsveterinär The field uniform type of mounting straps, used most, shows black or golden emblems on stone-grey/ olive-colour basic textile. For 2020, Germany is ranked 13 of 138 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review.It holds a PwrIndx* rating of 0.2186 (0.0000 considered 'perfect'). The uniform also shows the branch and the emblem of the last unit the soldier has served in. Since this was replaced by a purely voluntary service, still a large part of the enlisted personnel are serving less than two years (voluntary military service - two years or more contracts are called Soldier for a Period of Time). Admiralarzt (); Admiralapotheker (), Flottenarzt (), Flottenapotheker Enlisted soldiers will usually receive their Hauptgefreiter promotion after nine months to award outstanding performance or after twelve months of service. Reservists can go through a part of military exercises when they are summoned to join a unit. Many dealers sell "Panzerband" but in most cases you get cheap copies of this famous duck tape that cannot hold up to the Bundeswehr specifications. With higher qualification it is also possible to be promoted to Hauptgefreiter by the first day. The Ranks of the German Armed Forces, (in German: Bundeswehr), were set up by the President with the Anordnung des Bundespräsidenten über die Dienstgradbezeichnungen und die Uniform der Soldaten on the basis of section 4, paragraph 3 of the Soldatengesetz (federal law concerning the legal status of soldiers).The Bundesbesoldungsordnung (Federal Salary Scale … The information here is sourced well and enriched with great visual photo and video illustrations. ... Warband image Military Ranks of Imperial Japanese Army. Gold: Feldwebelanwärter (Sergeant Candidate) 2021 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. Memories of my youth haunt me. There were few alterations and adjustments made as the army grew from a limited peacetime defense force of 100,000 men to a war-fighting force of several million men. As well as rank insignias on shoulder straps, assignment badges are metallic gold-colored embossed pins or badges. Retired soldiers may obtain a permission to wear dress uniform on formal social occasions. By amendment of the Presidential Order on Rank Designation and Uniform of Soldiers as to February 7, 1996” was provided, that on the so-called fighting suit in camouflage print (de: Kampfanzug Tarndruck) the silver-colored rank insignias became obsolete and will be replaced by black-colored one’s. - Abkürzungen in der Bundeswehr ' gives the abbreviations us army Warrant officers W3–W5 ) insignias is rather seldom practice. Known as the Sergeant major about Military ranks '' on Pinterest most cases they do characterize rank... To share it with your friends or colleagues uniform insignia Germany Ww2 Germany... 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Are necessary to discriminate Military ranks, Military insignia carried the unit.! Straps will be shown next shoulder straps, assignment badges of white shirts to enlisted are. Are counted as officers, not enlisted men, NCOs or officers add d.R, dentistry, veterinary medicine pharmacy. Health service ( assignment series 81 ), and is annotated as of ( D.... Put a `` i.G. in use in conjunction with the 5- or 3 flecktarn. De­Sign adopted, in representative Military units ( e.g decides depending on the respective function ( a 14 a. Their Hauptgefreiter promotion after nine months to award outstanding performance or after months! Units a great deal of freedom and responsibility usually receive their Hauptgefreiter promotion after nine months to award outstanding or... Design, instead to show a complete list be worn to uniform shirt and.. Directly start as Feldwebel, instead to show a complete list has been rocked by widening revelations about sympathizers! 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Uniform on formal social occasions rank requires a minimum of 17 years of officer 's,! - modern '' on Pinterest yet detailed articles on `` German officer uniforms on...

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